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Periodic table

Content

TAG

Page number

The three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas. Melting and freezing take place at the melting point, boiling and condensing take place at the boiling point. The three states of matter can be represented by a simple model. In this model, particles are represented by small solid spheres. Particle theory can help to explain melting, boiling, freezing and condensing.  The amount of energy needed to change state from solid to liquid and from liquid to gas depends on the strength of the forces between the particles of the substance. The nature of the particles involved depends on the type of bonding and the structure of the substance. The stronger the forces between the particles the higher the melting point and boiling point of the substance.

G

68

If a change of state happens: The energy needed for a substance to change state is called latent heat. When a change of state occurs, the energy supplied changes the energy stored (internal energy) but not the temperature. The specific latent heat of a substance is the amount of energy required to change the state of one kilogram of the substance with no change in temperature.

B

68

Phys

88-94

Students should be able to interpret heating and cooling graphs that include changes of state.

G

Phys 88-94

(HT only) Limitations of the simple model above include that in the model there are no forces, that all particles are represented as spheres and that the spheres are solid.

P

22

Students should be able to:

• predict the states of substances at different temperatures given appropriate data

• explain the different temperatures at which changes of state occur in terms of energy transfers and types of bonding

• recognise that atoms themselves do not have the bulk properties of materials

B

68

• (HT only) explain the limitations of the particle theory in relation to changes of state when particles are represented by solid inelastic spheres which have no forces between them.

P

22

In chemical equations, the three states of matter are shown as (s), (l) and (g), with (aq) for aqueous solutions. Students should be able to include appropriate state symbols in chemical equations for the reactions in this specification.

G

68

The elements in the periodic table are arranged in order of atomic (proton) number and so that elements with similar properties are in columns, known as groups. The table is called a periodic table because similar properties occur at regular intervals.

G

30

Elements in the same group in the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their outer shell (outer electrons) and this gives them similar chemical properties.

G

28, 38

Students should be able to:

• explain how the position of an element in the periodic table is related to the arrangement of electrons in its atoms and hence to its atomic number

• predict possible reactions and probable reactivity of elements from their positions in the periodic table.

B

30

Before the discovery of protons, neutrons and electrons, scientists attempted to classify the elements by arranging them in order of their atomic weights. The early periodic tables were incomplete and some elements were placed in inappropriate groups if the strict order of atomic weights was followed.

G

32

Mendeleev overcame some of the problems by leaving gaps for elements that he thought had not been discovered and in some places changed the order based on atomic weights. Elements with properties predicted by Mendeleev were discovered and filled the gaps. Knowledge of isotopes made it possible to explain why the order based on atomic weights was not always correct. Students should be able to describe these steps in the development of the periodic table.

G

32

Elements that react to form positive ions are metals. Elements that do not form positive ions are non-metals.

B

38, 58

The majority of elements are metals. Metals are found to the left and towards the bottom of the periodic table. Non-metals are found towards the right and top of the periodic table.

G

36

Students should be able to:

• explain the differences between metals and non-metals on the basis of their characteristic physical and chemical properties.

• explain how the atomic structure of metals and non-metals relates to their position in the periodic table

• explain how the reactions of elements are related to the arrangement of electrons in their atoms and hence to their atomic number

B/P

36

The elements in Group 0 of the periodic table are called the noble gases. They are unreactive and do not easily form molecules because their atoms have stable arrangements of electrons. The noble gases have eight electrons in their outer shell, except for helium, which has only two electrons. The boiling points of the noble gases increase with increasing relative atomic mass (going down the group).

B

40

Students should be able to:

• explain how properties of the elements in Group 0 depend on the outer shell of electrons of the atoms

• predict properties from given trends down the group.

B

40

The elements in Group 1 of the periodic table are known as the alkali metals and have characteristic properties because of the single electron in their outer shell. Students should be able to describe the reactions of the first three alkali metals with oxygen, chlorine and water. In Group 1, the reactivity of the elements increases going down the group.

G

42

Students should be able to:

• explain how properties of the elements in Group 1 depend on the outer shell of electrons of the atoms

• predict properties from given trends down the group.

B

42

The elements in Group 7 of the periodic table are known as the halogens and have similar reactions because they all have seven electrons in their outer shell. The halogens are non-metals and consist of molecules made of pairs of atoms. Students should be able to describe the nature of the compounds formed when chlorine, bromine and iodine react with metals and non-metals.

G

44

In Group 7, the further down the group an element is the higher its relative molecular mass, melting point and boiling point. In Group 7, the reactivity of the elements decreases going down the group. A more reactive halogen can displace a less reactive halogen from an aqueous solution of its salt.

P

44

Students should be able to:

• explain how properties of the elements in Group 7 depend on the outer shell of electrons of the atoms

• predict properties from given trends down the group

B

44

(Chem only) The transition elements are metals with similar properties which are different from those of the elements in Group 1. Students should be able to describe the difference compared with Group 1 in melting points, densities, strength, hardness and reactivity with oxygen, water and halogens. Students should be able to exemplify these general properties by reference to Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu.

p

48

(Chem only) Many transition elements have ions with different charges, form coloured compounds and are useful as catalysts. Students should be able to exemplify these general properties by reference to compounds of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu.

p

48

Targets: Green = G, Blue = B, Purple = P.

 

 



Jun

09




03:00PM - 05:00PM




Jun

15




08:00AM - 09:00AM




Jun

18




02:45PM - 04:30PM


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